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篇目編號00006651
篇名乾隆皇帝與滿洲傳統的重建—以薩滿祭祀儀式為例
並列篇名Emperor Ch’ien-lung and Reconstruction of Manchu Traditions:Study of Shaman Rituals
姓名(English Name)葉高樹(Yeh, Kao-shu)
中文摘要清朝宮廷的薩滿祭祀儀式,被認為是少數還能保存滿洲傳統的項目。乾隆十二年(1747),乾隆皇帝為維護傳統,下令用滿文編纂《欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮》;乾隆四十二年(1777),再譯成漢文,並收入《四庫全書》。在該書編寫過程中,內容都由官員們詳細比對、考證,再經皇帝核定,但是要繙譯成漢文時,卻面臨若干詞彙無法解讀的問題,而且書名並未呈現薩滿信仰的特點,不免令人懷疑乾隆皇帝編這部書的目的,究竟是為保存文化,抑或是建立規範。傳統有可能是官方基於某種目的,刻意去創造、發明而形成,本文的目的,不在分析薩滿信仰的內涵,而在探討乾隆皇帝藉由建立規範解決滿洲背離傳統所產生的問題,以及他所建立的規範在文化上的意義,和對滿洲社會的影響。
英文摘要The Shaman ritual as conducted in the court of Ch’ing Dynasty was regarded as one of the few practices that had preserved Manchu traditions. In 1747, Emperor Ch’ien-lung ordered the officials to compile the Imperially Ordained Rituals of the Manchu Sacrifices to Ancestral Spirits and to Heaven (《欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮》) in Manchu language to standardize the rituals practiced by the court. In 1777, Emperor Ch’ien-lung issued an order to translate the book into Han language and make it as a part of the Siku Quanshu (《四庫全書》). Before submitting the book to the emperor for approval, the officials had carefully made comparisons and done textual research during the compilation. However, in the process of translating the book into Han language, they had confronted difficulties in interpreting certain vocabulary. In addition, as the book title itself did not clearly indicate the characteristic of Shamanism, it was doubtful that whether the emperor intended to preserve the culture or to establish social norms. Since “tradition” could be created and invented for certain purposes, this study, instead of analyzing Shamanism itself, aims to discuss the problems resulted from Emperor Ch’ien-lung’s policy of establishing norms in resolving deviation from the Manchu tradition, and the cultural significance as well as the influences on the Manchu society of the norms as established.
頁次43-94
卷期48
出版日期2017年11月
中文刊名政治大學歷史學報
英文刊名The Journal of History