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篇名荒野法對土地圈護法制的增益:美國經驗提供我國的啟示
並列篇名The Wilderness Act as a Valuable Add to the Land Preservation Law: The Lesson to Be Learned from the U.S. Experience
姓名(English Name)陳仲嶙(Chung-Lin Chen)
中文摘要為回應開發案無章法蔓生的問題,採取將自然區域直接劃歸保護的策略,是法制上重要的一環。此一策略也已為我國許多法律所採取,包括國家公園法、文化資產保存法、野生動物保育法、森林法、濕地保育法等。不過,相較於美國法制,我國尚無立基於荒野思維而建構的荒野法。本文之目的,即在探索美國荒野法的制度理念、法律規範,及其對我國可能的借鏡價值。\r
視荒野本身即為價值、視保護荒野乃是倫理應然的荒野思維,逐漸在美國的歷史文化中成形,並影響了美國法制,最終促成1964年的荒野法。此一法律建立了國家荒野保護系統,加諸行政部門系統性地審視特定地區納入荒野保護之切合性的職責。而對於納入保護的荒野地區,要求行政機關保護其荒野特質,並限制商業事業、道路、機動化運輸、建築物與設施,以期能夠永保其自然特質。\r
對照之下,雖然我國已有多面向的保護區法制,但整體而言在圈護對象上,重視景觀、地質、生態、生存物種或文化上的特殊性、代表性或重要性,而非如美國荒野法,著眼於是否為荒野,而不要求是一塊「特別的」荒野。因此,荒野法制若進入我國法制中,預期可產生額外的保育量能。另外,美國荒野法禁止開發但開放個人接近荒野的規範架構,亦對我國深具管制政策上的啟發性。
英文摘要To respond to the sprawl of destructive developmental projects, getting natural land
into a protected status is an essential strategy. Many laws in Taiwan have adopted this
strategy, including the National Park Act, Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, Wildlife
Conservation Act, Forestry Act, and Wetland Conservation Act. However, a wilderness
law which is based on a wilderness philosophy does not exist in Taiwan. The purpose of
this article is to explore the philosophy and regulation of the U.S. Wilderness Act and
what Taiwan can learn from it.
The wilderness philosophy, which values wilderness and regards wilderness
preservation as an ethical norm, gradually emerged and influenced American law,
eventually resulting in the Wilderness Act of 1964. This Act established the National
Wilderness Preservation System and required agencies to systematically review specific
areas as to their suitability for preservation as wilderness. For the areas that are designated
as wilderness areas, the Act mandates agencies to protect their wilderness characters and
prohibits or regulates commercial enterprise, roads, mechanical transports, and structures
or installations for preserving the natural characters of the wilderness areas forever.
Although Taiwan has had diverse land preservation laws, the U.S. Wilderness Act
provides valuable insights. First, overall speaking, Taiwan’s land preservation laws stress the
uniqueness, representativeness, or importance of scenery, geology, ecosystem, species, and
culture in terms of designation criteria and are different from the U.S. Wilderness Act, which
focus only on whether an area is wilderness and does not require extra qualities. Therefore,
adopting a wilderness law will bring Taiwan additional capacity of land preservation. Second,
the U.S. Wilderness Act prohibits large-scale development but opens access to
頁次101-144
卷期19:2
出版日期2016年11月
中文刊名臺灣土地研究
英文刊名Journal of Taiwan land research